Soil phosphorus (P) deficiency is a major constraint of crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso, P is rarely replenished as fertilizer supplies are limited in rural areas and because of the socio-economic situation of farmers. There is however, an abundance of local phosphate rock resource in the country. The development of local inorganic P fertilizers to improve crop production and replace the nutrients removed after harvesting, as well as to promote to sustainable agriculture, is desired. This study evaluated the efficiency of low-grade Burkina Faso phosphate rock (BPR)-based P fertilizers, produced by acidulation and calcination-the major fertilizer processing methods, on lowland rice production and the soil factors influencing their effectiveness. The results showed that the acidulated P fertilizers were as effective as conventional commercial P fertilizers on various soil types, textures, and fertility. Calcined P fertilizers were consistently effective on fine-textured soils with high basic fertility. It was found that fine soil texture and basic fertility of the initial soils were important factors in agronomic efficiency of BPR-based fertilizers and the resilience of rice production to climatic variability. It is recommended that soil type, with respect to soil texture, soil properties, inherent fertility, and water availability, should be considered when using BPR-based fertilizers for rice cultivation.