To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for investigating the effect of dietary treatment and fluid intake on the prevention of recurrent calcium stones and changes in urine composition. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases (updated November 2020) were searched for studies with the following keywords: diet, fluid, recurrent, prevention, randomized controlled trials, and nephrolithiasis. The search strategy and study selection process was conducted by following the PRISMA statement. Six RCTs were identified for satisfying the inclusion criteria and enrolled in this meta-analysis. Our result showed that low protein with or without high fiber diet intervention does not decrease the recurrence of stone upon comparing with control groups (RR = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.42-12.85; P = 0.34) with significant heterogeneity among the studies (I.sup.2 = 81%, P = 0.02). But normal-calcium, low protein, low-salt diet had recurrences did reduced the recurrence compared to normal-calcium diet. And the fluid intake has a positive effect on prevention of recurrent stone formation (RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.80; P = 0.01) with insignificant heterogeneity among the studies (I.sup.2 = 9%, P = 0.30). The different components of urine at baseline were reported in four studies. Upon reviewing the low protein with or without high fiber dietary therapy groups, it was found that there were no obvious changes in the 24-hour urine sodium, calcium, citrate, urea, and sulfate. In conclusion, our study shows that the only low protein with or without fiber does not affect recurrence, but low Na, normal Ca diet has a marked effect on reducing recurrence of calcium stone. And fluid intake shows a significant reduction in the recurrence of calcium stone.