Aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the administration of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the short term to the same patients in Barcelona Clinical Liver Cancer (BCLC) stages 0-B1. Methods From April 2014 to June 2019, we retrospectively reviewed BCLC stage 0-B1 patients with fresh hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions that were repeatedly treated by RFA (control group, n = 72), and by RFA and subsequent SBRT (case group, n = 26). Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to reduce the selection bias between two groups. Recurrence, survival, Child-Pugh scores and short-term side effects (fever, bleeding, skin change, abdominal pain and fatigue) were recorded and analyzed. Results After PSM, 21 patients remained in each group. Seventeen and 20 patients in the case and control groups experienced recurrence. For these patients, the median times to progression and follow-up were 10.7 and 35.8 months, respectively. After PSM, the 1-year progression-free survival rate in case and control groups were 66.7% and 52.4%, respectively (P = 0.313). The inter-group overall survival (OS) was comparable (3 and 5-year OS rates in case groups were 87.3% and 74.8%, while rates in control groups were 73.7% and 46.3%, respectively; P = 0.090). The short-term side effects were mild, and the incidence showed no inter-group difference. The 1-year rates of the Child-Pugh score deterioration of [greater than or equal to]2 in case and control groups were 23.8% and 33.3% (P 0.05), respectively. Conclusion The short-term administration of RFA and SBRT to the same BCLC stage 0-B1 patients may be feasible and effective because of their good prognosis and safety.