Hypoxia-dependent drivers of melanoma progression.

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Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 20,502 words
Lexile Measure: 1600L

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Abstract :

Hypoxia, a condition of low oxygen availability, is a hallmark of tumour microenvironment and promotes cancer progression and resistance to therapy. Many studies reported the essential role of hypoxia in regulating invasiveness, angiogenesis, vasculogenic mimicry and response to therapy in melanoma. Melanoma is an aggressive cancer originating from melanocytes located in the skin (cutaneous melanoma), in the uveal tract of the eye (uveal melanoma) or in mucosal membranes (mucosal melanoma). These three subtypes of melanoma represent distinct neoplasms in terms of biology, epidemiology, aetiology, molecular profile and clinical features. In this review, the latest progress in hypoxia-regulated pathways involved in the development and progression of all melanoma subtypes were discussed. We also summarized current knowledge on preclinical studies with drugs targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1, angiogenesis or vasculogenic mimicry. Finally, we described available evidence on clinical studies investigating the use of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 inhibitors or antiangiogenic drugs, alone or in combination with other strategies, in metastatic and adjuvant settings of cutaneous, uveal and mucosal melanoma. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-independent pathways have been also reported to regulate melanoma progression, but this issue is beyond the scope of this review. As evident from the numerous studies discussed in this review, the increasing knowledge of hypoxia-regulated pathways in melanoma progression and the promising results obtained from novel antiangiogenic therapies, could offer new perspectives in clinical practice in order to improve survival outcomes of melanoma patients. Keywords: Hypoxia, HIF-1, Cutaneous melanoma (CM), Uveal melanoma (UM), Mucosal melanoma (MM), Angiogenesis, Vasculogenic mimicry

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A661436822