Objective It remains unclear that the relationship between sprint and/or endurance performance and salivary immunological factors and stress hormones in athletes. The aim of this study was to investigate if salivary immunological factors and stress hormones are related to sprint and endurance performance in sprinters and long-distance runners. Fourteen male sprinters provided 100-m record and 22 male long-distance runners provided 5000-m record. Salivary IgA, MCP-1, interleukin-8, and cortisol levels in sprinters and long-distance runners were measured by ELISA assay. Results No significant differences were found in all salivary parameters between sprinters and long-distance runners. In long-distance runners, the salivary IgA and MCP-1 concentrations and secretory rate significantly correlated with their personal best 5000-m times (r = 0.534, P = 0.011; r = 0.567, P = 0.006; r = 0.452, P = 0.035, respectively). In sprinters, the salivary IgA concentration, MCP-1 concentration, and MCP-1 secretory rate did not correlate with personal best 100-m sprint times (r = - 0.260, P = 0.369; r = 0.128, P = 0.663; r = 0.122, P = 0.677, respectively). Therefore, the present study is the first to determine that immunological factors such as IgA and MCP1 may be related to endurance performance in long-distance runners.