Phylogenomics of Anguis and Pseudopus (Squamata, Anguidae) indicates Balkan-Apennine mitochondrial capture associated with the Messinian event.

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Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Document Type: Report
Length: 434 words

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Keywords Evolutionary history; Glass lizard; Introgression; Messinian salinity crisis; Mitonuclear discordance; Slow worm Highlights * Genome-wide dated phylogenetic reconstruction of Western Palearctic anguid lizards. * Mitonuclear discordance found in Anguis veronensis from the Apennine Peninsula. * Mitochondrial capture occurred during the Messinian event from the Balkans. * The oldest division in Anguis separates A. cephallonica from the A. fragilis species complex. * Genomic divergences within Pseudopus support the concept of a single species. Abstract A dated phylogenetic hypothesis on the evolutionary history of the extant taxa of the Western Palearctic lizards Anguis and Pseudopus is revised using genome-wide nuclear DNA and mitogenomes. We found overall concordance between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA phylogenies, with one significant exception -- the Apennine A. veronensis. In mitochondrial DNA, this species forms a common clade with the earliest diverging lineage, the southern Balkan endemic A. cephallonica, while it clusters together with A. fragilis in nuclear DNA. The nuclear phylogeny conforms to the morphology, which is relatively similar between A. veronensis and A. fragilis. The most plausible explanation for the mitonuclear discordance is ancient mitochondrial capture from the Balkan ancestor of A. cephallonica to the Apennine population of the A. fragilis-veronensis ancestor. We hypothesize that this capture occurred only in a geographically restricted population. The dating of this presumed mitochondrial introgression and capture coincides with the Messinian event, when the Balkan and Apennine Peninsulas were presumably largely connected. The dated nuclear phylogenomic reconstruction estimated the divergence of A. cephallonica around 12 Mya, while the sister clade representing the A. fragilis species complex consisting of the sister species A. fragilis--A. veronensis and A. colchica--A. graeca further diversified around 7 Mya. The depth of nuclear divergence among the evolutionary lineages of Pseudopus (0.5--1.2 Mya) supports their subspecies status. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Vertebrate Biology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic (b) National Museum, Department of Zoology, Prague, Czech Republic (c) Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic (d) Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovicova 6, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia (e) Florida State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Tallahassee, USA (f) Florida State University, Department of Scientific Computing, Dirac Science Library, Tallahassee, USA * Corresponding author at: Institute of Vertebrate Biology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Research Facility Studenec, Studenec 122, 675 02, Czech Republic. Article History: Received 12 January 2022; Revised 19 September 2022; Accepted 7 December 2022 Byline: Václav Gvozdík [vaclav.gvozdik@gmail.com] (a,b,*), Tadeás Necas (a,c), Daniel Jablonski (d), Emily Moriarty Lemmon (e), Alan R. Lemmon (f), David Jandzik (d), Jirí Moravec (b)

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A735630651