Association of socioeconomic status and food security with anthropometric indices among 2-5-year-old urban children in eight different cities in Iran

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Publisher: Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.
Document Type: Report
Length: 2,758 words
Lexile Measure: 1690L

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Byline: Mina. Minaie, Ariyo. Movahedi, Ahmadreza. Motlagh, Zahra. Abdollahi, Abolghasem. Djazayery

Introduction: Child nutrition status is very important in all societies, which is influenced by the interaction of multiple factors including food security and socioeconomic status in both genders. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between food security and socioeconomic status with anthropometric indices among 2-5-year-old urban children in eight different cities in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric Z scores of 7028 children of urban area were measured by using World Health Organization (WHO) Anthro software based on WHO 2007 standards. Family food security was assessed by using HFIAS 9-item questionnaire. Socioeconomic status as well as health factors were analyzed using the SPSS. Results: Based on the present study, significant correlation was observed between sleep time, birth weight, and food security (P < 0.05) with body mass index (BMI), while the rest of the variables including age, family size, number of children, parents' education, breastfeeding duration, watching TV, playing computer games, playing outdoors, number of main eating, and number of snacks showed no significant relation (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It was shown that 2-5 years old children's life are the most vital and vulnerable to the hazards of undernutrition or overweight and obesity, which could affect the whole health of the person. As food security affects BMI, it is important to focus more on this issue in order to improve child's health status.

Introduction

Obesity has become one of the major risk factors for many chronic diseases, which makes it as foremost epidemiologic challenges of today around the world. Numerous comorbid conditions have been connected with obesity, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.[1] According to the World Health Organization (WHO), among children younger than 5 years of age, 41 million were obese or overweight in 2017, and if the present trend remains unchanged the number of overweight or obese infants and young children globally will increase to 70 million by 2025.[2] In Iran, based on the National Integrated Micronutrient Survey 2012 (NIMS-2), overweight and obesity among 15-23 months and 6 years old children are 5.6% and 13.5%, respectively. Moreover, in some regions like Gilan and Mazandaran, the north of Iran, the rate of obesity and overweight is much higher than national average.[3] There is much evidence showing that the incidence of obesity and overweight has been significantly enlarged among children in recent years. Overweight or obese children are at risk for high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes and may become overweight or obese adults at the end.[4]

Many factors could be involved in child's weight status. Among these factors, food security is quite interesting issues these days, which might affect as a double sword on child's body mass index (BMI).[5],[6] Food security is the product of food availability, food access, stability of supplies, and biological utilization.[7] In a very basic meaning it is regularly having enough food to eat for all time.[8] It could also...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A604880962