Biological and Immune Responses to Current Anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccines beyond Anti-Spike Antibody Production.

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Date: May 14, 2022
Publisher: Hindawi Limited
Document Type: Article
Length: 6,274 words
Lexile Measure: 1530L

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Abstract :

Several vaccine strategies are now available to fight the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Those based on the administration of lipid-complexed messenger(m)RNA molecules represent the last frontiers in terms of technology innovation. mRNA molecules coding for the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein are intramuscularly injected, thereby entering cells by virtue of their encapsulation into synthetic lipid nanovesicles. mRNA-targeted cells express the Spike protein on their plasma membrane in a way that it can be sensed by the immune system, which reacts generating anti-Spike antibodies. Although this class of vaccines appears as the most effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease, their safety and efficiency are challenged by several factors included, but not limited to the following: emergence of viral variants, lack of adequate pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics studies, inability to protect oral mucosa from infection, and antibody waning. Emergence of viral variants can be a consequence of mass vaccination carried out in a pandemic time using suboptimal vaccines against an RNA virus. On the other hand, understanding the remainder flaws could be of some help in designing next generation anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. In this commentary, issues regarding the fate of injected mRNA, the tissue distribution of the induced antiviral antibodies, and the generation of memory B cells are discussed. Careful evaluation of both experimental and clinical observations on these key aspects should be taken into account before planning booster administration, vaccination to non-at-risk population, and social restrictions.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A704638080