Seasonal malaria chemoprevention packaged with malnutrition prevention in northern Nigeria: A pragmatic trial (SMAMP study) with nested case-control

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From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 14, Issue 1)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 8,632 words
Lexile Measure: 1490L

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Abstract :

Integrating seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), recommended by the WHO since 2012 to prevent malaria infection, with nutrition interventions may improve health outcomes and operational efficiencies. This study assessed the effects of co-packaging interventions on distribution coverage, nutrition, and clinical malaria outcomes in northern Nigeria. From August to November 2014, community volunteers delivered sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine (SP-AQ) door-to-door each month to approximately 7,000 children aged 6-24 months in seven wards of Madobi, Kano State, Nigeria. In three of the wards children additionally received a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS-medium quantity), Plumpy Doz. Coverage, adherence, and anthropometric outcomes were assessed through baseline, midline, and endline household surveys. A facility-based case-control study was also conducted to estimate impact on clinical malaria outcomes. Coverage of SP-AQ was similar between arms at 89% (n = 2,409 child-months [88-90%]) in the SP-AQ only arm and 90% (n = 1,947 child-months [88-92%]) in the SP-AQ plus LNS arm (p = 0.52). Coverage of LNS was 83% (n = 2,409 child-months [81-84%]). Whilst there were marked changes in anthropometric status between baseline, midline and endline, these were largely accounted for by socioeconomic status and must be interpreted with care due to possible measurement issues, especially length-based indices. Overall nutritional status of our most robust measure, weight-for-age, does appear to have improved by endline, but was similar in the two study arms, suggesting no additional benefit of the LNS. While the odds of clinical malaria among those who received the intended intervention were lower in each study arm compared to children who did not receive interventions (SP-AQ only OR = 0.23 [0.09-0.6]; SP-AQ plus LNS OR = 0.22 [0.09-0.55]), LNS was not shown to have an additional impact. Coverage of SMC was high regardless of integrating LNS delivery into the SMC campaign. Supplementation with LNS did not appear to impact nutritional outcomes, but appeared to enhance the impact of SP-AQ on clinical odds of malaria. These results indicate that combining nutritional interventions with seasonal malaria chemoprevention in high-risk areas can be done successfully, warranting further exploration with other products or dosing. Trial Registration: ISRCTN 11413895

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A571057253