Byline: Hui Luo, Department of Radiation Oncology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Department of Radiation Oncology, Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University Department of Oncology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Division of Graduated, Weifang Medical College, Shandong, P.R. China.; Xinshuang Yu; Ning Liang; Jian Xie; Guodong Deng; Qiqi Liu; Jingxin Zhang; Jiandong Zhang; Hong Ge Abstract BACKGROUND: The efficacy and toxicity of induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published papers to quantitatively evaluate the potential benefit of induction chemotherapy. METHODS: Eligible studies of induction chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy were retrieved through extensive searches of the PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, and Cochrane library databases from 1994 to 2015. We excluded studies that using non-English. Our primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), secondary end point was toxicity. RESULTS: Two studies of induction chemotherapy followed by CCRT versus CCRT alone and 5 studies of induction chemotherapy followed by CCRT versus CCRT followed by consolidation chemotherapy published in the same period were selected and analyzed. Our results showed that there was significant benefit of induction chemotherapy plus CCRT compared to CCRT alone on 5-year OS without 1, 2, 3, and 4 years OS. Our analysis also indicated that induction chemotherapy was as effect as consolidation chemotherapy for patients who received CCRT on overall response and OS. Treatment-related toxicity was similar between the 2 group; however, leucopenia was significant decreased in patients treated by induction chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR]Çè=Çè0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.62; PÇè CONCLUSION: Five year OS could be improved when induction chemotherapy was added into CCRT for patients of NSCLC. Except low rate of leucopenia, induction chemotherapy was no difference compared to consolidation chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC treated by CCRT.