Generating evidence on screening, diagnosis and management of non-communicable diseases during pregnancy; a scoping review of current gap and practice in India with a comparison of Asian context

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From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 16, Issue 2)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 11,837 words
Lexile Measure: 1580L

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Abstract :

Background Children born to high-risk pregnancies are more likely to experience adverse health outcomes later in life. As estimated, 15% of all pregnancies are at risk of various life-threatening conditions leading to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. Millennium Development Goal resulted in the global reduction of maternal death from 390,000 to 275000 in 1990-2015). Similarly, to keep this momentum, the current United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG: 3.1) aims at reducing the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030, and this can be achieved by addressing high-risk pregnancy contributing to significant mortality and morbidity. In India, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, and gestational hypothyroidism were identified as factors contributing to the high-risk pregnancy. This review summarises the commonly used approach for screening, diagnosis, and management of these conditions in the Asian population. It draws a comparison with the current protocols and guidelines in the Indian setting. Methods Electronic search in PubMed and Google Scholar, reference snowballing, and review of current guidelines and protocols were done between January 2010 to October 2019. Published studies reporting Screening, diagnosis, and management of these conditions were included. Articles selected were then screened, appraised for quality, extract relevant data, and synthesised. Results Screening, diagnosis, and management of these three conditions vary and no single universally accepted criteria for diagnosis and management exist to date. In India, national guidelines available have not been evaluated for feasibility of implementation at the community level. There are no national guidelines for PIH diagnosis and management despite the increasing burden and contribution to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Criteria for diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, and gestational hypothyroidism varies but overall early screening for predicting risk, as reported from majority of the articles, were effective in minimizing maternal and foetal outcome. Conclusion Existing National guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (2018) and Gestational Hypothyroidism (2014) need to be contextualized and modified based on the need of the local population for effective treatment. Findings from this review show that early screening for predicting risk to be an effective preventive strategy. However, reports related to a definitive diagnosis and medical management were heterogeneous.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A650392668