Introduction Understanding the risk factors for behavioral patterns in sexual relationships play a significant role in the reduction of the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. Objective To investigate individual and community level factors on the lifetime number of sexual partners of women in Eswatini Material and methods The study was a secondary cross-sectional analysis of the 2014 Eswatini Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). A total of 2,832 women aged 15-49 years were asked in total, how many different people have you had sexual intercourse in your lifetime. The multilevel negative binomial regression model was used to analyze the data. Results The overall mean number of lifetime sexual partners was 2.78 (95% CI: 2.66, 2.91) in 2014. Compared to women aged 15-19, those aged 20 years and older, formerly married or never married reported more lifetime sexual partners compared to currently married women. Those that were aged 15 years and older at sexual debut reported fewer lifetime sexual partners compared to those that were aged less than 15 years. Compared to women that used a condom at last sexual intercourse, those that did not use a condom at last sexual encounter reported fewer lifetime sexual partners. Relative to women that lived with their sons and daughters, those that did not live with their sons and daughters reported more lifetime sexual partners. Women that lived in the Shiselweni and Lubombo regions reported fewer lifetime sexual partners compared to those residents in the Hhohho region. Conclusion Overall, lifetime sexual partners in Eswatini was significantly associated with individual characteristics and is unique across regions. Programs that aim to elucidate the factors associated with incident HIV infections among women in Eswatini should focus on individual and community-level factors that are associated with multiple sexual partnerships, which in turn might increase the risk of HIV exposure.