Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disease that reduces lung and respiratory function, with a high mortality rate. Severe and acute deterioration of COPD can easily lead to respiratory failure, resulting in personal, social, and medical burden. Recent studies have shown a high correlation between the gut microbiota and lung inflammation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between gut microbiota and COPD severity. A total of 60 COPD patients with varying severity according to GOLD guidelines were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from patients' stool and 16S rRNA data analysis conducted using high-throughput sequencing followed by bioinformatics analysis. The richness of the gut microbiota was not associated with COPD severity. The gut microbiome is more similar in stage 1 and 2 COPD than stage 3+4 COPD. Fusobacterium and Aerococcus were more abundant in stage 3+4 COPD. Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group and Lachnoclostridium were less abundant in stage 2-4, and Tyzzerella 4 and Dialister were less abundant in stage 1. However, the abundance of a Bacteroides was associated with blood eosinophils and lung function. This study suggests that no distinctive gut microbiota pattern is associated with the severity of COPD. The gut microbiome could affect COPD by gut inflammation shaping the host immune system.