Dirigent-jacalin (D-J) genes belong to the plant chimeric lectin family, and play vital roles in plant growth and resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. To explore the functions of the D-J family in the growth and development of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), their physicochemical properties, phylogenetic relationships, gene and protein structures, and expression patterns were analyzed in detail. Four putative PeD-J genes were identified in the Moso bamboo genome, and microsynteny and phylogenetic analyses indicated that they represent a new branch in the evolution of plant lectins. PeD-J proteins were found to be composed of a dirigent domain and a jacalin-related lectin domain, each of which contained two different motifs. Multiple sequence alignment and homologous modeling analysis indicated that the three-dimensional structure of the PeD-J proteins was significantly different compared to other plant lectins, primarily due to the tandem dirigent and jacalin domains. We surveyed the upstream putative promoter regions of the PeD-Js and found that they mainly contained cis-acting elements related to hormone and abiotic stress response. An analysis of the expression patterns of root, leaf, rhizome and panicle revealed that four PeD-J genes were highly expressed in the panicle, indicating that they may be required during the formation and development of several different tissue types in Moso bamboo. Moreover, PeD-J genes were shown to be involved in the rapid growth and development of bamboo shoots. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT PCR) assays further verified that D-J family genes were responsive to hormones and stresses. The results of this study will help to elucidate the biological functions of PeD-Js during bamboo growth, development and stress response.