Palaeobotanical experiences of plant diversity in deep time. 2: How to measure and analyse past plant biodiversity.

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Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Document Type: Report
Length: 669 words

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Keywords Palaeobotany; Palynology; Taxonomy; Taphonomy; Ordination; Classificatory analysis Highlights * Ordination and clustering can be used to study palaeobotanical diversity patterns. * Diversity data can be extracted from surveys or from databases. * Palaeobotanical diversity sampling depends on the type of fossil investigated. * Plant biostratigraphy can reveal changing plant diversities through time. Abstract Determining the diversity of past floras helps with interpreting both the history and predicting the future of vegetation change. For global-scale and regional-scale diversity studies especially, secondary data are often used but local-scale studies tend to be based on survey data that require rigorous sampling. The correct sampling strategies depend on the types of fossils being investigated, including their physical size, and whether the aim is to determine taxonomic richness or relative abundance. Describing and comparing diversities can use a range of different metrics, depending on whether binary presence/absence or abundance data are available. Each metric provides a different insight into the diversities and the choice of which to use depends on the research question being investigated. Various numerical approaches are available for identifying spatial and stratigraphical diversity patterns, mainly classificatory techniques (e.g., cluster and parsimony analyses) and ordination (e.g., Detrended Correspondence Analysis, Nonmetric Dimensional Scaling). The choice of technique again depends on the research question, but often it has proved useful to run both types of analysis in tandem. This article is illustrated by past biodiversity case studies from throughout the fossil record, dealing with floras ranging in age from the Devonian to the last few centuries. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Natural Sciences, National Museum Wales, Cardiff CF10 3NP, UK (b) School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK (c) School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK (d) CNRS, Univ. Lille, UMR 8198, Evo-Eco-Paleo, F-59000 Lille, France (e) Institute of Earth Surface Dynamics IDYST, University of Lausanne, Bâtiment Géopolis, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland (f) Department of Marine Geosciences and Land Management, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain (g) Varna Regional Museum of History, 41 Maria Louisa Boulevard, 9000 Varna, Bulgaria (h) Palaeoecology, Department of Physical Geography, University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80115, 3508, TC, Utrecht, the Netherlands (i) School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK (j) Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Street, 23, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria (k) Museum of Nature South Tyrol, Bindergasse/Via Bottai 1, Bozen/Bolzano 39100, Italy (l) Laboratoire méditerranéen de préhistoire Europe Afrique, Ecosystèmes Quaternaires LAMPEA (UMR 7269) MMSH, 5 rue du Château de l'Horloge, CS90412, 13097 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 2, France (m) School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, L69 3GP Liverpool, UK (n) Department of Botany, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland (o) Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic (p) Southwest Petroleum University, School of Geosciences and Technology, 8, Xindu Ave., 610500 Xindu, Chengdu, China (q) Department of Palaeontology, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria (r) *EP Research, 59320 Ennigerloh-Westkirchen, Germany (s) Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, University of Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth SY23 1NL, UK (t) Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum, 60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany (u) University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics, Department of Geology and Doctoral School of Geology, Laboratory of Palaeontology, 1, N. Balcescu Ave., 010041 Bucharest, Romania * Corresponding author. Article History: Received 11 May 2021; Revised 6 August 2021; Accepted 6 August 2021 (miscellaneous) Editor: Thomas Algeo Byline: Heather S. Pardoe [] (a,*), Christopher J. Cleal [] (b), Christopher M. Berry [] (c), Borja Cascales-Miñana [] (d), Basil A.S. Davis [] (e), Jose B. Diez [] (f), Mariana V. Filipova-Marinova (g), Thomas Giesecke [] (h), Jason Hilton [] (i), Dimiter Ivanov [] (j), Evelyn Kustatscher [] (k), Suzanne A.G. Leroy [] (l,m), Jennifer C. McElwain (n), Stanislav Oplustil [] (o), Mihai Emilian Popa [] (p,u), Leyla J. Seyfullah [] (q), Ellen Stolle [] (r), Barry A. Thomas [] (s), Dieter Uhl [] (t)

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A676678036