Sugar compounds (SCs) are major water-soluble constituents in atmospheric aerosols. In this study, we investigated their molecular compositions and abundances in the northern receptor site (Mangshan) of Beijing, China, to better understand the contributions from biogenic and anthropogenic sources using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The sampling site receives anthropogenic air mass transported from Beijing by southerly winds, while northerly winds transport relatively clean air mass from the forest areas. Day- and nighttime variations were analyzed for anhydrosugars, primary sugars, and sugar alcohols in autumn 2007. We found that biomass burning (BB) tracers were more abundant at nighttime than daytime, while other SCs showed different diurnal variations. Levoglucosan was found to be dominant sugar among the SCs observed, indicating an intense influence of local BB for cooking and space heating at the surroundings of the Mangshan site. The high levels of arabitol and mannitol in daytime suggest a significant contribution of locally emitted fungal spores and long-range-transported bioaerosols from the Beijing area. The plant emissions from Mangshan forest park significantly control the diurnal variations of glucose, fructose, and mannitol. The meteorological parameters (relative humidity, temperature, and rainfall) significantly affect the concentrations and diurnal variations of SCs. Sucrose (pollen tracer) showed a clear diurnal variation, peaking in the daytime due to higher ambient temperature and wind speed, which influences the pollen release from the forest plants. We found the contribution of trehalose from soil dust in daytime, while microbial and fungal spores were responsible for nighttime. Anhydrosugar and primary sugars are prime carbon sources of the Mangshan aerosols. The high ratios of levoglucosan in organic carbon and water-soluble organic carbon at nighttime suggest a significant contribution of BB to organic aerosols at night. Levoglucosan / mannosan ratios demonstrate that low-temperature burning of hardwood is dominant in Mangshan. The positive matrix factorization analysis concluded that forest vegetation, fungal species, and local BB are the significant sources of SCs.