Voluntary jaw wiring in Nigeria: Reasons and treatment outcome

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Date: January-June 2019
Publisher: Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 4,090 words
Lexile Measure: 1450L

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Byline: Mark. Nwoga, Samuel. Maduakor, Appolos. Ndukuba

Background: Overweight and obese dental patients occasionally request jaw wiring. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for requesting jaw wiring and to evaluate the outcome of the procedure. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of adults, who requested jaw wiring treatments at two private dental facilities in Enugu and Lagos, Nigeria. The interventions consisted of jaw wiring with four interdental eyelets and two tie wires. The main outcome measures were reasons for the request, weight loss, and body mass index (BMI) change. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20.0. Results: Thirty-four patients, all female, requested jaw wiring. Majority were single (82.4% [28/34]). The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 28.1 (6) (confidence interval [CI]: 25.9-30.2). Simplicity of the procedure, weight-loss needs, and improved body shape were the main reasons for all the patients. Single women additionally included a 'desire to attract a marriage mate' in 67.6% (23/34), 'preparation for an engagement,' and 'to fit a wedding gown,' 5.9% (2/34). Married women, 14.7% (5/34), additionally desired to 'please a husband' or 'achieve postpartum weight-loss.' Nineteen subjects completed the treatment and lost a mean (SD) weight of 8.3 (3.6) kg (95% CI: 6.5-10) over a mean (SD) duration of 45.0 (14.9) days (CI: 37.8-52.2). The mean BMI was lowered after treatment by 3.09kg/m2 (1.3; CI: 2.5-3.7). The posttreatment BMI classification improved for 52.6% (10/19) of the patients. Conclusions: Jaw wiring was desired by young women because of its simplicity, predictable weight loss, and marital and social concerns. Weight loss and lowered BMI were achieved.


The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria is in the range of 20.3%-35.1%, and 8.1%-22.2%, respectively.[1] Overweight and obesity are measured by body mass index (BMI), where the weight in adults is considered normal, overweight, and obese when the BMI falls within 18.50-24.99kg/m2, 25.00-29.99kg/m2, and ≥30kg/m2, respectively.[2] The super obese are subjects with BMI ≥50kg/m2.[3]

People with weight problems engage in a variety of measures to control their weight. These include low-energy diet, physical exercise, anti-obesity drugs, behavioral therapy, obesity vaccine, intragastric balloons, bariatric surgery, liposuction, and jaw wiring.[4],[5],[6],[7] The jaw wiring technique is based on the principle of interdental eyelet wiring (Ivy loop method) commonly used in maxillomandibular fixation of jaw fractures. Both conventional interdental eyelet wiring and orthodontic jaw wiring primarily restrict solid food intake, and lead to weight reduction.[8] Earlier reported treatment involved extensive jaw wiring for long durations of 6-9 months, with complications of periodontal disease, limited mouth opening, mouth odor, and anxiety.[4],[9]

The reasons for voluntary request of jaw wiring procedure in our environment, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported. This study examines these reasons and the outcome of a shorter period of treatment with fewer wires. It is hoped that this study will highlight the role of the dentist in a multidisciplinary approach to management of overweight and obesity.

Patients and Methods

This is a retrospective study of patients who voluntarily...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A596374767