Byline: Young Suk Kwon, Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon; Choung Ah Lee, Department of Emergency Medicine, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong-si; Sunghoon Park, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine; Sang Ook Ha, Department of Emergency Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do; Yun Su Sim, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul; Moon Seong Baek, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong-si, Republic of Korea. Abstract Few data are available regarding factors that impact cricothyrotomy use and outcome in general hospital setting. The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence and outcomes of the patients underwent cricothyrotomy in a "cannot intubate, cannot oxygenate" (CICO) situation at university hospitals in Korea.This was a retrospective review of the electronic medical records of consecutive patients who underwent cricothyrotomy during a CICO situation between March, 2007, and October, 2018, at 2 university hospitals in Korea. Data regarding patient characteristics and outcomes were analyzed using descriptive statistics.During the study period, a total of 10,187 tracheal intubations were attempted and 23 patients received cricothyrotomy. Hospitalwide incidence of cricothyrotomy was 2.3 per 1000 tracheal intubations (0.23%). The majority of cricothyrotomy procedures (22 cases, 95.7%) were performed in the emergency department (ED); 1 cricothyrotomy was attempted in the endoscopy room. In the ED, 5663 intubations were attempted and the incidence of cricothyrotomy was 3.9 per 1000 tracheal intubations (0.39%). Survival rate at hospital discharge was 47.8% (11 of 23 cases). Except for cardiac arrest at admission, survival rate was 62.5% (10 of 16 cases). Successful cricothyrotomy was performed in 17 patients (73.9%) and 9 patients (52.9%) were survived. Among 6 patients of failed cricothyrotomy (26.1%), 2 patients (33.3%) were survived. After failure of cricothyrotomy, various methods of securing airway were established: 3 tracheal intubations, 1 nasotracheal intubation, and 1 tracheostomy.The success rate of cricothyrotomy and survival rate in the CICO situation were not high. After failure of cricothyrotomy, various methods of securing airway were performed.