The first report on the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections and associated risk factors among traditional pig farmers in Bali Province, Indonesia.

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From: Veterinary World(Vol. 15, Issue 5)
Publisher: Veterinary World
Document Type: Article
Length: 6,066 words
Lexile Measure: 1390L

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Abstract :

Background and Aim: Pigs are the main livestock commodity in Bali Province, Indonesia, where traditional farming practices are widely used. Traditional pig farmers are often closely associated with poverty and a perceived lack of knowledge regarding health and hygiene. Data on soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and risk factors associated with STH worm infection among traditional pig farmers in Bali were previously unavailable. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence and risk factors for STH infections among traditional pig farmers in Bali Province, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: This study involved the fecal examination of 238 traditional pig farmers from all areas of Bali Province in Indonesia. In addition, several pig feces samples were combined into one pooled sample belonging to each farm. All fresh fecal samples were stored in a 5% formaldehyde solution before being analyzed using concentration flotation techniques. Subsequently, risk factors were determined through an interview and a questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) and Chi-square tests were used to determine the risk factors associated with STH infections. Results: The result showed that there was a high prevalence of STH infections among traditional pig farmers and pig farms in Bali, with rates of 21.8% and 76.5%, respectively. This could be due to risk factors, such as personal hygiene (OR: 5.756; confidence interval [CI]: 2.96-11.193; p=0.00), sanitation (OR: 1.914; CI: 1.024-3.576; p=0.042), education level (OR: 7.579; CI: 2.621-21.915; p=0.00), household income (OR: 2.447; CI: 1.122-5.338; p=0.025), and occupation (OR: 2.95; CI: 1.356-6.415; p=0.006). Conclusion: The infections seen in farmers were distributed among hookworm, Ascaris spp., and Trichuris spp., at 15.1%, 9.2%, and 4.2%, respectively. The risk factors associated with infections of STH and Ascaris spp. were personal hygiene, home sanitation, education level, household income, and having a primary occupation as a traditional pig farmer. In contrast, personal hygiene, education level, and primary occupation were the only risk factors for hookworm infection, while personal hygiene and home sanitation were the risk factors associated with Trichuris spp. infection. The limitation of this study was that the number of samples was relatively small due to the difficulty of obtaining stool samples from traditional pig farmers, with many individuals refusing to provide their stool for inspection. We suggest that future research focus on identifying the species of worms that infect traditional pig farmers and to better identify the zoonotic link of STH transmission from pigs to humans. Keywords: Ascaris, hookworm, risk factor, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, traditional pig farmer, Trichuris.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A704237662