There has been an increase in the usage of heat-not-burn (HNB) cigarette products. However, their effects on alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) remain unknown. AECs are the target cells of conventional cigarette smoking-related respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer whose pathogenesis involves oxidative stress. In this study, primary rat AECs were isolated, cultured and stimulated by HNB cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Our data indicate that rat AECs exposed to HNB CSE induced oxidative stress response genes (e.g. Hmox-1, Gsta1, Gsta3 and Nqo1). We also compared the oxidative stress response between two different types of AECs, alveolar type I-like (ATI-like) cells and type II (ATII) cells, and between two different types of cigarette, HNB cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. The expressions of Gsta1, Gsta3 and Nqo1 were higher in ATII cells than ATI-like cells in response to HNB and conventional cigarettes, but there was no significant difference in their expression levels between HNB cigarette and conventional cigarette. Taken together, our results suggest that HNB cigarettes have the similar potential as conventional cigarette products to induce oxidative stress response in AECs.