Effect of a 5000 ppm fluoride toothpaste and a 250 ppm fluoride mouth rinse on the demineralisation of dentin surfaces

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From: BMC Research Notes(Vol. 2)
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Document Type: Report
Length: 3,224 words

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Authors: Mozhgan Bizhang (corresponding author) [1]; Yong-Hee P Chun [2]; Mai-Trinh Winterfeld [1]; Markus J Altenburger [3]; Wolfgang HM Raab [1]; Stefan Zimmer [4]


Fluoride has been a vital agent in caries prevention since the last century. The caries preventive effect of fluoride is mainly attributed to its effects on demineralization/remineralization of dental hard tissue at the tooth-oral fluids interface. The substitution of hydroxyl ions by fluoride in the mineral crystal, allows for a tighter packing of calcium hydroxyapatite thereby decreasing the solubility of the mineral. In an acidic environment, for example, following sugar intake, fluorohydroxyapatite is more resistant to dissolution than hydroxyapatite. At the apatite-solution interface hydroxyl ions are replaced by fluoride ions resulting in remineralization. [1] Therefore, the loss of mineral is prevented before it can be detected microscopically.

Fluoride plays an important role in the control of root caries [1], by not only reducing the caries progression rate but also by inducing the arrest of active lesions [2]. Topically applied fluoride, in different concentrations, has proven to be capable of reducing root caries development in vitro [3], in situ [4] and in vivo [5].

The function of collagen in the remineralization of dentinal lesions is controversially discussed. Early studies found that collagen did not seem to contribute either positively or negatively to embedding fluoride ions into the hydroxyapatite structure [1, 6]. More recently, collagen has been shown to be critical for dentin remineralization [7], in the presence of fluoride. Various clinical studies have shown that the introduction of fluoride shifts the balance from demineralization to remineralization or lesion arrest [8]. Furthermore, the cariostatic property of a dentifrice containing both amine fluoride and stannous fluoride (ASF) (250 ppm fluoride) has been documented [9].

The rapid progression of root caries may be limited by a high fluoride concentration. In enamel, increasing the concentration of fluoride leads to a reduced loss of calcium [10]. Therefore, in an effort to prevent root caries, a toothpaste containing 5000 ppm of sodium fluoride (NaF) is tested in this study. An intra-oral experimental caries model[11, 12] is exploited here, for the evaluation of the anti-caries effect of the high fluoride concentration toothpaste. The null hypothesis tested was: there is no difference in the effect of fluoride, in different concentrations, on the demineralization of human dentin surface, against the alternative hypothesis of a difference.

Materials and methods

Experimental Design

The study was approved by the ethical committee of the University of Duesseldorf, Germany (No 3256). Informed consent was obtained from the subject. One volunteer, with no signs of active caries or periodontal disease, but with moderate previous caries experience (FS = 20) participated in this study. The subject was in good general health and had not taken antibiotics for at least one month. The subject was instructed to use a non-fluoridated toothpaste (Aronal; GABA, Basel, Switzerland), starting four weeks prior to and continuing throughout the experimental period.

Specimens from forty-five extracted, caries-free, human third molars were used for the intraoral demineralization model. Dentin specimens...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A205300811