Oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) are the crucial intermediates linking volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the atmosphere, but comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of OOMs and their formation from VOCs is still missing. Ambient observations of OOMs using recently developed mass spectrometry techniques are still limited, especially in polluted urban atmospheres where VOCs and oxidants are extremely variable and complex. Here, we investigate OOMs, measured by a nitrate-ion-based chemical ionization mass spectrometer at Nanjing in eastern China, through performing positive matrix factorization on binned mass spectra (binPMF). The binPMF analysis reveals three factors about anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) daytime chemistry, three isoprene-related factors, three factors about biogenic VOC (BVOC) nighttime chemistry, and three factors about nitrated phenols. All factors are influenced by NO.sub.x in different ways and to different extents. Over 1000 non-nitro molecules have been identified and then reconstructed from the selected solution of binPMF, and about 72 % of the total signals are contributed by nitrogen-containing OOMs, mostly regarded as organic nitrates formed through peroxy radicals terminated by nitric oxide or nitrate-radical-initiated oxidations. Moreover, multi-nitrates account for about 24 % of the total signals, indicating the significant presence of multiple generations, especially for isoprene (e.g., C.sub.5 H.sub.10 O.sub.8 N.sub.2 and C.sub.5 H.sub.9 O.sub.10 N.sub.3). Additionally, the distribution of OOM concentration on the carbon number confirms their precursors are driven by AVOCs mixed with enhanced BVOCs during summer. Our results highlight the decisive role of NO.sub.x in OOM formation in densely populated areas, and we encourage more studies on the dramatic interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions.