Objective. The long noncoding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) are closely associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). But a complete mechanism for MALAT1 in DN has yet to be identified. This study investigated the effect of MALAT1 on DN through the regulation of miR-15b-5p/TLR4 signaling. Method. Renal tissues were collected from DN patients. Human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) were used as a model of DN induced by high glucose (HG). We then measured the viability, apoptosis, and inflammatory cytokine levels of HK-2 cells using the corresponding assays. Following transfections of si-MALAT1, si-MALAT1+miR-15b-5p inhibitor, or si-MALAT1+vector TLR4 into HG-stimulated HK-2 cells, cell viability, apoptosis, and inflammatory cytokines were again measured. Furthermore, dual-luciferase reporter assay validated the interactions of MALAT1/miR-15b-5p and miR-15b-5p/TLR4. In addition, the interaction between MALAT1 and miR-15b-5p was investigated by RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP). Results. A significant upregulation of MALAT1 was observed in DN kidney tissues, as well as in HG-stimulated HK-2 cells. MALAT1 knockdown attenuates the inhibition of cell viability, apoptosis, and inflammatory response induced by HG in HK-2 cells. Moreover, a miR-15b-5p inhibitor or TLR4 overexpression reversed the above effects induced by MALAT1 knockdown. Conclusion. These results indicate that reduced MALAT1 ameliorates HG-stimulated HK-2 cell damage through an inhibition of the miR-15b-5p/TLR4 axis. MALAT1 may serve as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target for DN.