The Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale (CAAS; Maxwell & Moores, 2007a) was originally developed as a 12-item sliort-scale designed to measure factors (e.g., anger and aggressiveness) thought to precede aggressive sport behavior It is important that newly established psychological tests in the sport and exercise sciences be subjected to repeat testing in an effort to discern their usefulness in various populations of sports, cultures, and languages. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to subject the CAAS to further psychometric evaluation utilizing two samples of athletes - American (n = 355) and English-speaking Hong Kong Chinese (n = 322). Results indicated that the factor structure of the 12-item CAAS was largely replicable across cultures. There were significant differences across cultures in the way athletes responded to individual items, reflected in the values of item means, although these differences did not appear systematic (i.e., no evidence of response bias). The use of the CAAS is encouraged in future research, but researchers should be aware of some minor redundancy for measures of verbal aggressiveness.
The Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale (CAAS; Maxwell & Moores, 2007a) is an efficient method of assessment developed to identify athletes that may be more likely to display acts of aggression. As the field of sport and exercise psychology becomes increasingly cognizant of the impact of multiculturalism, researchers should begin making strides to validate widely used instruments of important psychological and behavioral constructs, such as anger and aggressiveness, cross-culturally. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to continue to test the psychometric properties of the CAAS in both American and English-speaking Hong Kong Chinese (hereafter referred to simply as Chinese) populations.
Defining Aggression, Aggressiveness, and Anger in Sport
Maxwell and Moores (2007a) noted that there has been a "heated" debate in the sport science literature regarding an appropriate definition of aggression in sport (see Kerr 1999, 2002; Sacks, Petscher, Stanley, & Tenenbaum, 2003; Tenenbaum, Sacks, Miller, Golden, & Doolin, 2000; Tenenbaum, Stewart, Singer, & Duda, 1997). The debate largely revolves around the inclusion or omission of sanctioned acts of aggression (e.g., punching in boxing or heavy tackles in American football). The International Society for Sport Psychology (ISSP) Position Statement favors omission (Tenenbaum, et al., 1997), regarding sanctioned acts as assertive rather than aggressive, whereas Kerr, amongst others (e.g., Maxwell & Moores, 2007b), favor inclusion (Kerr, 1999, 2002). The ISSP defined aggression as "... the infliction of an illegal aversive stimulus, either physical, verbal, or gestural, upon one person by another. Aggression is not an attitude but an unsanctioned behavior and, most critically, it is reflected in acts committed with the intent to injure (Lellnes & Nation, 1989)" (Tenenbaum et al., 1997; p. 1; italicized words added by authors). Kerr on the other hand, while not providing a clear-cut definition of aggression in sport, suggests "aggression can be seen as unprovoked hostility or attacks on another person which are not sanctioned by society" (Kerr, 1997, p. 115-116).
Ultimately, Maxwell and Moores (2007a) choose to integrate the ISSP's and Kerr's...