Internal Heat Necrosis of Potato--A Review

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From: American Journal of Potato Research(Vol. 85, Issue 1)
Publisher: Springer
Document Type: Article
Length: 915 words

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Byline: G. Craig Yencho (1), Per H. McCord (1), Kathleen G. Haynes (2), S. B. Rikki Sterrett (3) Keywords: Abiotic stress; Solanum tuberosum; Internal defects; Internal necrosis; Potato tuber Abstract: Non-pathogenic necroses of potato tubers have been described in the literature since the early 20th century using different names including internal rust spot, internal browning, physiological internal necrosis, internal brown fleck, chocolate spot, internal brown spot and internal heat necrosis. These reports very likely describe either the same, or a collection of similar disorders, falling under the general umbrella of "internal necrosis", with the expression of symptoms being significantly altered via genotype by environment interactions. A number of widely-grown cultivars (e.g. 'Russet Burbank', 'Atlantic' and 'Yukon Gold') are susceptible to internal necrosis, making it an economically significant problem. In Atlantic, this syndrome has been termed internal heat necrosis (IHN) in the eastern United States by several investigators because heat and drought are believed to be important triggers of this condition. Investigators in the midwestern and western United States term this same or similar disorder internal brown spot (IBS). IHN and IBS are an internal physiological disorder of potato characterized by brownish red necrotic patches of parenchymal tissue that typically, though not always, occur along and/or inside the vascular ring. Several reports indicate that IHN is most commonly associated with the vascular ring tissue near the apical end of the tuber, but IHN may form anywhere in the tuber. In many cases, it is very difficult to distinguish between IHN and IBS, and several overlapping environmental factors are associated with each of these disorders. High day and night temperatures early in the growing season, combined with low rainfall, have been shown to increase the frequency and severity of IHN and IBS in several cultivars. Considerable research has examined the role of calcium in ameliorating IHN and IBS expression. Much of this work suggests an important role for calcium in the development of IHN, but other biotic and abiotic factors undoubtedly affect IHN and IBS expression. The biochemistry and genetics behind internal necroses of potato have historically been the least-researched facets of this problem. Research has shown that enzymes involved in protecting cells from oxidative damage may be involved, and heritability studies have demonstrated that broad-sense heritability for IHN resistance is high. This review seeks to outline previous work on physiological internal necroses of potato due to high temperatures, summarize our current knowledge of IHN, and point to new areas of investigation to develop IHN resistant potato varieties. Abstract (Spanish): Desde comienzos del siglo 20 se han descrito en la literatura unas necrosis no patogenicas del tuberculo de papa, usando diferentes nombres, como herrumbre interna, oscurecimiento interno, necrosis fisiologica interna, punto oscuro interno, mancha chocolate, mancha marron interna y necrosis interna por calor. Estos nombres parecen describir ya sea la misma enfermedad o una coleccion de desordenes similares que caen dentro de la descripcion general "necrosis interna", con la expresion de los sintomas significativamente alterada, a traves de interacciones genotipo ambiente. Varios de los cultivares ampliamente cultivados (tales como Russet Burbank "Atlantic" y 'Yukon Gold') son susceptibles a la necrosis interna, haciendola un problema economicamente significativo. En Atlantic, este sindrome ha sido llamado necrosis interna por calor (IHN) en la parte oriental de los Estados Unidos por varios investigadores porque se cree que el calor y la sequia son importantes factores desencadenantes para esta condicion. Los investigadores en el medio oeste y oeste de los Estados Unidos llaman a este o similares desordenes mancha parda interna (IBS). El IHN y el IBS son desordenes fisiologicos internos de la papa, caracterizados por parches necroticos marron rojizos de tejido parenquimatico del tuberculo que tipicamente, aunque no siempre, se presentan a lo largo o dentro de anillo vascular. Varios informes indican que IHN esta asociado mas comunmente con el tejido de anillo vascular cerca de extremo apical, pero puede estar localizado en cualquier parte de tuberculo. En muchos casos, es muy dificil distinguir entre IHS e IBS y varios otros factores ambientales asociados con estos desordenes. Las temperaturas altas diurna y nocturna al inicio de la etapa del cultivo, combinadas con poca lluvia, han demostrado incrementar la frecuencia y severidad de IHN e IBS en varios cultivares. Se ha hecho investigacion considerable para examinar el rol del calcio en disminuir expresion de IHN e IBS. Mucho de este trabajo sugiere el rol importante del calcio en disminuir el desarrollo de IHN, pero indudablemente otros factores bioticos y abioticos afectan la necrosis interna de la papa. La bioquimica y genetica detras de la necrosis interna han sido las facetas historicamente menos investigadas del problema. La investigacion ha demostrado que las enzimas involucradas en la proteccion de las celulas contra el dano oxidativo pueden estar involucradas y los estudios de heredabilidad han demostrado que la herencia de sentido amplio es alta para resistencia al IHN. Esta revision busca resumir el trabajo previo sobre la necrosis fisiologica interna de la papa debida a altas temperaturas, resume el conocimiento actual de IHN y senala las nuevas areas de investigacion para desarrollar variedades resistentes de papa al IHN. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Rm. 214A, Kilgore Hall, Box 7609, Raleigh, NC, 27695-7609, USA (2) Genetic Improvement of Fruits and Vegetables Laboratory, USDA/ARS, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA (3) Northampton County Cooperative Extension Office, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 5432-A Bayside Rd., Exmore, VA, 23350, USA Article History: Registration Date: 03/01/2008 Received Date: 24/07/2007 Online Date: 11/03/2008

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A206238003