Clinically, acute kidney injury (AKI) episodes in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients are associated with a cumulative risk of developing end-stage renal disease. In this study, we asked whether the severity of AKI induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is more prominent in DM than in non-DM control using a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) model. We also investigated whether human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) infused via the renal artery could ameliorate renal IRI in DM monkeys. The experimental data, including mortality rate, histologic findings, and urinary albumin secretion indicate that the severity of AKI was greater in DM monkeys than in control animals. Moreover, histological findings and qRT-PCR analysis of Ngal mRNA in renal biopsy tissue showed that hBM-MSC promoted the recovery of tubular damage caused by AKI. Serum analysis also revealed that the level of albumin and ALT was increased 24 and 48 hours after AKI, respectively, suggesting that AKI induced acute liver injury. We suggest that this nonhuman primate model could provide essential information about the renal and nonrenal impairment related to DM and help determine the clinical usefulness of MSCs in AKI.