This study investigated the sources of black carbon (BC) at two contrasting urban environments in Helsinki, Finland: residential area and street canyon. The measurement campaign in the residential area was conducted in winter-spring 2019, whereas in the street canyon the measurements were carried out in autumn 2015. The sources of BC were explored by using positive matrix factorization (PMF) for the organic and refractory black carbon (rBC) mass spectra collected with a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). Based on the PMF analysis, two sites had different local BC sources; the largest fraction of BC originated from biomass burning at the residential site (38 %) and from the vehicular emissions in the street canyon (57 %). Also, the mass size distribution of BC diverged at the sites as BC from traffic was found at the particle size of â¼100-150 nm whereas BC from biomass combustion was detected at â¼300 nm. At both sites, a large fraction of BC was associated with urban background or long-range-transported BC indicated by the high oxidation state of organics related to those PMF factors. The results from the PMF analysis were compared with the source apportionment from the Aethalometer model calculated with two pairs of absorption Ãngström values. It was found that several PMF factors can be attributed to wood combustion and fossil fuel fraction of BC provided by the Aethalometer model. In general, the Aethalometer model showed less variation between the sources within a day than PMF, indicating that it was less responsive to the fast changes in the BC sources at the site, or it could not distinguish between as many sources as PMF due to the similar optical properties of the BC sources. The results of this study increase understanding of the limitations and validity of the BC source apportionment methods in different environments. Moreover, this study advances the current knowledge of BC sources and especially the contribution of residential combustion in urban areas.