Globally gridded aerosol extinction data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) during 2007-2019 are utilized to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) climatological distribution of tropospheric type-dependent aerosols and to identify the trends in column aerosol optical depth (AOD), partitioned within different altitude regimes, and their meteorological drivers. Using detection samples of layer aerosols, we also yield a 3D distribution of the frequency of occurrence (FoO) of aerosol subtypes classified by CALIOP. The results show that the aerosol extinction coefficient (AEC) shows contrasting vertical distribution patterns over land and ocean, with the former possessing significant geographical dependence, while the enhancement of AEC in the latter is mainly located below 1 km. The vertical structures of the type-dependent AECs, however, are strongly dependent on altitude. When the total AOD (TAOD) is partitioned into the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere (FT), results demonstrate that the PBL and FT contribute 62.08 % and 37.92 %, respectively, of the global tropospheric TAOD averaged over daytime and nighttime. Yet this CALIOP-based partitioning of the different aerosol subtypes in the PBL and FT varies significantly. Among all 12 typical regions of interest analyzed, more than 50 % of TAOD is located in the lower troposphere (0-2 km), while the contribution is less than 2 % above 6 km. In global average terms, we found the aerosol FoO averaged over all layers is 4.45 %, with the largest contribution from "clean marine" (1.79 %) and the smallest from "clean continental" (0.05 %). Overall, the FoO vertical structures of the aerosol layer exhibit a distribution pattern similar to that of AEC. The resulting trend analyses show that CALIOP accurately captures significant regional anomalies in TAOD, as observed in other satellite measurements and aerosol reanalysis. Our correlation analysis between meteorological factors and TAOD suggests the interannual variability of TAOD is related to the variability of precipitation (PPT), volumetric soil moisture (VSM), and wind speed (WS) in the particular regions. For instance, the positive TAOD trend over the equatorial central Pacific is mainly attributable to the increased PPT and decreased WS. In contrast, in dry convective regions dominated by dust and smoke, the interannual variability/trend in TAOD is largely modified by the VSM driven by the PPT. Additionally, we further found that these significant regional correlations are more robust within the PBL and significantly weakened or even reversed within the FT. This highlights the superiority of using the TAOD partitioned within the PBL as a proxy variable for the widely applied TAOD to explore the relationships between atmospheric pollution and meteorology.