Effect of Atmospheric Aging on Soot Particle Toxicity in Lung Cell Models at the Air-Liquid Interface: Differential Toxicological Impacts of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOAs).

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From: Environmental Health Perspectives(Vol. 130, Issue 2)
Publisher: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Document Type: Report
Length: 17,347 words
Lexile Measure: 1470L

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Abstract :

Background: Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from anthropogenic or biogenic gaseous precursors in the atmosphere substantially contribute to the ambient fine particulate matter [PM [less than or equal to] 2.5 [micro]m in aerodynamic diameter (P[M.sub.2.5])] burden, which has been associated with adverse human health effects. However, there is only limited evidence on their differential toxicological impact. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to discriminate toxicological effects of aerosols generated by atmospheric aging on combustion soot particles (SPs) of gaseous biogenic ([beta]-pinene) or anthropogenic (naphthalene) precursors in two different lung cell models exposed at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Methods: Mono- or cocultures of lung epithelial cells (A549) and endothelial cells (EA.hy926) were exposed at the ALI for 4 h to different aerosol concentrations of a photochemically aged mixture of primary combustion SP and [beta]-pinene ([SOA.sub.[beta]PIN]-SP) or naphthalene ([SOA.sub.NAP]-SP). The internally mixed soot/SOA particles were comprehensively characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. We conducted toxicity tests to determine cytotoxicity, intracellular oxidative stress, primary and secondary genotoxicity, as well as inflammatory and angiogenic effects. Results: We observed considerable toxicity-related outcomes in cells treated with either SOA type. Greater adverse effects were measured for [SOA.sub.NAP]-SP compared with [SOA.sub.[beta]PIN]-SP in both cell models, whereas the nano-sized soot cores alone showed only minor effects. At the functional level, we found that [SOA.sub.NAP]-SP augmented the secretion of malondialdehyde and interleukin-8 and may have induced the activation of endothelial cells in the coculture system. This activation was confirmed by comet assay, suggesting secondary genotoxicity and greater angiogenic potential. Chemical characterization of PM revealed distinct qualitative differences in the composition of the two secondary aerosol types. Discussion: In this study using A549 and EA.hy926 cells exposed at ALI, SOA compounds had greater toxicity than primary SPs. Photochemical aging of naphthalene was associated with the formation of more oxidized, more aromatic SOAs with a higher oxidative potential and toxicity compared with [beta]-pinene. Thus, we conclude that the influence of atmospheric chemistry on the chemical PM composition plays a crucial role for the adverse health outcome of emissions. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9413

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A692680509