Several studies have suggested that cognitive impairment affects taste sensitivity. However, the mechanism behind this is still unclear. In this study, we focused on short-term memory. Using senescence-accelerated mouse prone 1 (SAMP1) mice, we compared whether the effects of aging are observed earlier in taste sensitivity or short-term memory. We used 8-week-old mice as the young group, and 70- and 80-week-old mice as aged groups. Taste sensitivity was evaluated using a 48-hour two-bottle preference test, and short-term memory was evaluated using the Y-maze test. SAMP1 mice showed apparently changes in taste sensitivity at 70-weeks-old. However, the influence of aging on spontaneous alternation behavior, which is indicative of short-term memory alterations, was not observed in 70-week-old mice. At 80-weeks-old, the influence of aging was observed, and spontaneous alternation behavior was significantly decreased. This suggests that age-dependent changes in taste sensitivity occur prior to short-term memory function decline. In addition, there was no significant influence of aging on the mRNA expression of long-term potentiation-related genes in the hippocampus of 80-week-old mice. Therefore, the age-related decline of short-term memory may not affect taste sensitivity.