Host-associated microbiomes can play important roles in the ecology and evolution of their insect hosts, but bacterial diversity in many insect groups remains poorly understood. Here we examine the relationship between host environment, host traits, and microbial diversity in three species in the ground beetle family (Coleoptera: Carabidae), a group of roughly 40,000 species that synthesize a wide diversity of defensive compounds. This study used 16S amplicon sequencing to profile three species that are phylogenetically distantly related, trophically distinct, and whose defensive chemical secretions differ: Anisodactylus similis LeConte, 1851, Pterostichus serripes (LeConte, 1875), and Brachinus elongatulus Chaudoir, 1876. Wild-caught beetles were compared to individuals maintained in the lab for two weeks on carnivorous, herbivorous, or starvation diets (n = 3 beetles for each species-diet combination). Metagenomic samples from two highly active tissue types-guts, and pygidial gland secretory cells (which produce defensive compounds)-were processed and sequenced separately from those of the remaining body. Bacterial composition and diversity of these ground beetles were largely resilient to controlled changes to host diet. Different tissues within the same beetle harbor unique microbial communities, and secretory cells in particular were remarkably similar across species. We also found that these three carabid species have patterns of microbial diversity similar to those previously found in carabid beetles. These results provide a baseline for future studies of the role of microbes in the diversification of carabids.