Background Domestic violence significantly affects physical and mental health, particularly among children, women, and the elderly. Living in certain family environments could lead to victimization by domestic violence, especially among families with a poor socioeconomic status, such as the Lahu hill tribe people in Thailand. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of and determine the factors associated with domestic violence among Lahu children, women, and the elderly. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of participants who belonged to the Lahu hill tribe and lived in 20 selected villages in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. A validated questionnaire was used to collect personal information and information regarding experiences related to domestic violence in the past year from children (aged 5-15 years), women (aged 16-59 years), and the elderly (aged 60 years and over). A binary logistic regression was used to detect associations between the variables. Results A total of 646 participants were recruited into the study, specifically, 98 children aged 5-15 years, 430 women aged 16-59 years, and 118 elderly people. Children who smoked (AOR = 8.70; 95%CI = 1.27-59.45) had greater odds of experiencing domestic violence than children who did not smoke. Women who had a role as a family member (AOR = 1.59; 95%CI = 1.02-2.50), used alcohol (AOR = 3.36; 95%CI = 2.27-4.99), lived in a family with financial problems (AOR = 4.01; 95%CI = 2.52-7.66), and lived with a family member who uses alcohol (AOR = 2.87; 95%CI = 2.20-5.63) had greater odds of suffering domestic violence than women who did not share these characteristics. The elderly who used alcohol (AOR = 3.25, 95%CI = 1.08-9.81), lived with a family member who uses alcohol (AOR = 3.31; 95%CI = 1.26-7.34), or lived in a family with financial problems in the past year (AOR = 2.16; 95%CI = 1.16-8.77) had greater odds of facing domestic violence than the elderly who did not have these characteristics. Conclusion Family financial problems and substance use are associated with domestic violence in Lahu families in Thailand. Health interventions to reduce the use of substances, including training programs to respond to domestic violence, should be promoted for Lahu children, women, and the elderly.