Inclusion of soybean and linseed oils in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet

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From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 16, Issue 2)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 8,104 words
Lexile Measure: 1480L

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Abstract :

Fluid milk and its derivatives are important dietary ingredients that contribute to daily nutrient intake of the modern Homo sapiens. To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of adding soybean oil and linseed oil in the diet of lactating cows. The fatty acid profile of milk, milk composition, and the blood parameters of cows were evaluated. Eighteen Holstein cows were distributed in a replicated Latin square design and distributed according to the following treatments: 1) Control (CC): traditional dairy cow diet, without addition of oil; 2) Soybean oil (SO): 2.5% addition of soybean oil to the traditional diet, as a source of omega-6; 3) Linseed oil (LO): 2.5% addition of linseed oil in the diet as a source of omega-3. Milk production was not affected, but oil supplementation decreased feed intake by 1.93 kg/cow/day. The milk fat percentage was significantly lower when cows were supplemented with vegetable oil (3.37, 2.75 and 2.89% for CC, SO and LO, respectively). However, both soybean and linseed oils decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids (66.89, 56.52 and 56.60 g/100g for CC, SO and LO respectively), increased the amount of unsaturated fatty acids in milk (33.05, 43.39, and 43.35 g/100g for CC, SO and LO respectively) and decreased the ratio between saturated/unsaturated fatty acids (2.12, 1.34, and 1.36 for CC, SO and LO respectively). Furthermore, SO and LO increased significantly the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (29.58, 39.55 and 39.47 g/100g for CC, SO and LO respectively), though it did not significantly alter the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat (3.57, 3.93 and 3.98 g/100g for CC, SO and LO respectively). Supplementation with LO enhanced the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids on milk (0.32, 0.36, and 1.02 for CC, SO and LO respectively). Blood variables aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, urea, albumin, creatinine and total proteins were not altered. On the other hand, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL were greater in the group supplemented with vegetable oils. Supplementation with vegetable oils reduced the dry matter intake of cows, the fat content of milk, and improved saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio of milk fat. Compared to the SO treatment, animals fed LO produced milk with greater content of omega-3, and a more desirable omega-6/omega-3 ratio on a human nutrition perspective. Thus, the inclusion of SO and LO in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human consumption.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A651257518