Background Maxillary protraction with or without expansion is a widely known orthopedic treatment modality in growing skeletal Class III patients. However, limited data are available regarding the outcomes of long-term changes in the maxilla. Aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of the long-term maxillary anteroposterior changes following a facemask therapy with or without rapid maxillary expansion in growing skeletal Class III patients. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the databases of PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and Embase. Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies, published up to Sep. 2020, with maxillary protraction and/or expansion as keywords were included in this meta-analysis. Risk of bias within and across studies were assessed using the Cochrane tools (RoB2.0 and ROBINS-I) and GRADE approach. Overall and subgroup comparisons with the random-effect model were performed in this meta-analysis. Meta-regression models were designed to determine potential heterogeneity. Results There was a statistically significant increase (Mean difference, 2.29°; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-2.73; and p Conclusion This meta-analysis revealed that maxillary protraction therapy could be effective for a short-term in correcting maxillary hypoplasia and the treatment result was not affected by mean age and sex. However, with increased follow-up duration, the sagittal maxillary changes gradually decreased. Limitations on this review were only the SNA angle was used and clinical heterogeneity was not discussed. The quality of evidence was moderate. Further long-term observational studies are necessary for a comprehensive evaluation of the effects on maxillary skeletal changes.