Biomechanical deviations at individual joints are often identified by gait analysis of patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Analysis of the control of joint and leg stiffness of the locomotor system during gait in children with spastic diplegic CP has been used to reveal their control strategy, but the differences between before and after surgery remain unknown. The current study aimed to bridge the gap by comparing the leg stiffness-both skeletal and muscular components-and associated joint stiffness during gait in 12 healthy controls and 12 children with spastic diplegic CP before and after tendon release surgery (TRS). Each subject walked at a self-selected pace on a 10-meter walkway while their kinematic and forceplate data were measured to calculate the stiffness-related variables during loading response, mid-stance, terminal stance, and pre-swing. The CP group altered the stiffness of the lower limb joints and decreased the demand on the muscular components while maintaining an unaltered leg stiffness during stance phase after the TRS. The TRS surgery improved the joint and leg stiffness control during gait, although residual deficits and associated deviations still remained. It is suggested that the stiffness-related variables be included in future clinical gait analysis for a more complete assessment of gait in children with CP.