Pediatric fever in neutropenia with bacteremia-Pathogen distribution and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility patterns over time in a retrospective single-center cohort study

Citation metadata

From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 16, Issue 2)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 4,822 words
Lexile Measure: 1490L

Document controls

Main content

Abstract :

Background Fever in neutropenia (FN) is a potentially life-threatening complication of chemotherapy in pediatric cancer patients. The current standard of care at most institutions is emergency hospitalization and empirical initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Methods We analyzed in retrospect FN episodes with bacteremia in pediatric cancer patients in a single center cohort from 1993 to 2012. We assessed the distribution of pathogens, the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and their trends over time. Results From a total of 703 FN episodes reported, we assessed 134 FN episodes with bacteremia with 195 pathogens isolated in 102 patients. Gram-positive pathogens (124, 64%) were more common than Gram-negative (71, 36%). This proportion did not change over time (p = 0.26). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (64, 32%), viridans group streptococci (42, 22%), Escherichia coli (33, 17%), Klebsiella spp. (10, 5%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (nine, 5%) were the most common pathogens. Comparing the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility patterns, the antimicrobial activity of ceftriaxone plus amikacin (64%; 95%CI: 56%-72%), cefepime (64%; 95%CI 56%-72%), meropenem (64%; 95%CI 56%-72), and piperacillin/tazobactam (62%; 95%CI 54%-70%), respectively, did not differ significantly. The addition of vancomycin to those regimens would have increased significantly in vitro activity to 99% for ceftriaxone plus amikacin, cefepime, meropenem, and 96% for piperacillin/tazobactam (p Conclusions Over two decades, we detected a relative stable pathogen distribution and found no relevant trend in the antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Different recommended antibiotic regimens showed comparable in vitro antimicrobial activity.

Source Citation

Source Citation   

Gale Document Number: GALE|A651631738