Transocular sonography in acute arterial occlusions of the eye in elderly patients: Diagnostic value of the spot sign

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From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 16, Issue 2)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 4,845 words
Lexile Measure: 1390L

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Abstract :

Purpose To characterize the diagnostic yield of the spot sign in the diagnostic workup of acute arterial occlusions of the eye in elderly patients. Methods Clinical characteristics of consecutive patients aged [greater than or equal to] 50 years with acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) or anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) were recorded. Videos of transocular sonography were assessed for the presence of the spot sign by two blinded readers. Group comparisons were made between CRAO-patients with and without the spot sign. Two experienced cardiovascular physicians allocated CRAO-cases to a presumed aetiology, without and with knowledge on the presence/absence of the spot sign. Results One-hundred-twenty-three patients were included, 46 of whom suffered from CRAO. A spot sign was seen in 32 of 46 of patients with CRAO and in 7 of 23 patients with BRAO. Interobserver agreement was excellent (Cohen`s kappa 0.98). CRAO-patients with the spot sign significantly more frequently had a medical history of cardiovascular disease (62.8 vs. 21.4%, p = 0.03) and left heart valve pathologies (51.9 vs. 10%, p = 0.03). The spot sign was not found in any of the three patients with CRAO secondary to cranial giant cell arteritis. The assumed CRAO aetiology differed in 37% of cases between two cardiovascular physicians, regardless whether transocular sonography findings were known or not. Conclusion The spot sign is a simple sonographic finding with excellent interobserver agreement, which proofs the embolic nature of CRAO, but does not allow exact attribution of the underlying aetiology.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A651631807