Introduction Early alcohol consumption can irreversible damage the adolescents' brain and may affect their quality of life. In order to better prevent such a deleterious behaviour, knowing its determinants is needed. So far, only few studies among adolescents aged Methods Data came from the 2018 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in French-speaking schools of Belgium. The sample analysed here comprised 4,364 10-14-year olds from the Walloon Region. Associations of the recent alcohol consumption (at least one glass during the past month) with sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics were estimated using gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results Prevalence of early alcohol consumption was 14% (boys: 16%; girls: 12%). Migration status and family affluence scale (FAS) were associated with early alcohol consumption only in boys. Second-generation immigrant boys (vs. natives: OR = 0.66 [0.47-0.92]) and boys from "low" FAS families (vs. "high": OR = 0.56 [0.32-0.98]) or "medium" FAS (vs. "high": OR = 0.63 [0.43-0.92]) were less likely to have consumed alcohol in the past month. In both genders, alcohol consumption was positively associated with age and inversely associated with school satisfaction and family support. No association was observed with family structure, peer support and life satisfaction in the multivariable models. Conclusion Our findings showed that gender differences may exist in the determinants of alcohol consumption among young adolescents. They will contribute to the development of public health policies and actions for the most vulnerable adolescents, which should take gender differences into account.