Diclofenac toxicity in susceptible bird species results from a combination of reduced glomerular filtration and plasma flow with subsequent renal tubular necrosis.

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From: PeerJ(Vol. 9)
Publisher: PeerJ. Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 9,124 words
Lexile Measure: 1470L

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Abstract :

Diclofenac caused the death of millions of vultures on the Asian subcontinent. Other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have since also been shown to be toxic to vultures with the exception of meloxicam. For this study, we evaluated the effect of diclofenac on renal uric acid transport and glomerulus filtration in an acute toxicity model. In a two-phase study with the same birds, healthy chickens (a validated model species) were treated intravenously with para-amino hippuric acid (PAH) and iohexol (IOH) in combination in phase 1. In phase 2, the same PAH and IOH combination was then combined with diclofenac (10 mg/kg). In both phases, blood and faeces were sequentially collected. In phase 1, the birds showed no signs of ill health. Moreover, PAH, IOH and uric acid clearance was rapid. In phase 2, two chickens showed early signs of hyperuricemia 8 hours after exposure and died approximately 24h later. Necropsy showed classic signs of renal damage and gout. Diclofenac had a rapid plasma half-life of elimination of less than 2 hours indicating that toxicity was likely due to an irreversible destruction of a physiological process. All the birds in phase 2 had decreased uric acid, PAH and IOH clearance in comparison to phase 1. The decrease in PAH clearance was variable between the birds (average of 71%) but was near 98% reduced in the two birds that died. It is concluded that diclofenac alters both renal perfusion and renal plasma flow, with death associated with tubular secretion being reduced to negligible functionality for a prolonged period. This would support previous in vitro findings of early cell death from ROS accumulation. However, further evaluation is needed to elucidate this final step.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A672921717