Leptonycteris yerbabuenae, the lesser long-nosed bat is an abundant migratory nectar-feeding bat found in most of Mexico, and in some areas of northern Central America and small sections of southwestern USA. We analyzed the distribution of the maternal and paternal lineages of this species with phylogeographic methods based on two mitochondrial markers, Cyt-b and D-loop, and a marker located in the Y chromosome, DBY. We obtained tissue samples from 220 individuals from 23 localities. Levels of genetic diversity (haplotype diversity, H.sub.d ) were high (Cyt-b = 0.757; D-loop = 0.8082; DBY = 0.9137). No clear patterns of population genetic structure were found for mitochondrial markers, while male genetic differentiation suggested the presence of two lineages: one from Mexican Pacific coast states and another from central-southern Mexico; in accordance to strong male philopatry and higher female migration. We used genealogical reconstructions based on Bayesian tools to calculate divergence times, and to test coalescent models to explain changes in L. yerbabuenae historical demography. Our results show that recent demographic changes were consistent with global climatic changes (~130,000 kyr ago for Cyt-b and ~160,000 kyr for D-loop) and divergence times dated from molecular genealogies exhibited older divergence times, Cyt-b (4.03 mya), D-loop (10.26 mya) and DBY (12.23 mya). Accordingly, the female lineage underwent demographic expansion associated to Pleistocene climate change, whereas the male lineage remained constant.