Byline: Arslaan Javaeed, Maria Shahid, Sana Samad Khan, Sanniya Khan Ghauri, Shafqat Husnain Khan and Zarghoona Wajid
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Pakistan.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus(T2DM) is one of the most important and rapidly increasing non-communicable diseases(NCDs) in the world. In 1995, there were an estimated 135 million patients with DM, and by 2000 the number had increased to 151 million.1,2 Current estimates indicate that, by 2025, there will be approximately 300 million DM patients worldwide; with more than 75% of them living in developing countries.3,4 In 2007, the World Health Organisation(WHO), and the United Nations(UN) indicated that DM would likely evolve to be one of the most significant global public health issues. In South Asian countries, inadequate patient understanding of T2DM, underutilisation of medical services, and poor attitudes toward T2DM control may well worsen the current outlook.5-8 Pakistan is a developing country in South Asia and has a population of approximately 207.77 million.6 A decade ago, DM was not included in the country's list of severe diseases.
Around the end of 2015, there was an increased incidence of DM in both urban and rural Pakistan. According to Shera et al.,7,9 12% of Pakistanis aged >25 years suffer from DM. Overall weighted prevalence of diabetes was 26.3%, of which 19.2% had known diabetes, and 7.1% were newly-diagnosed. Prevalence of diabetes in urban and rural areas was 28.3% and 25.3%, respectively. Prevalence of prediabetes was 14.4%.10 WHO estimates that Pakistan has the seventh highest prevalence of DM globally.3,11 Thus, effective interventions, increased disease-related awareness, and innovative preventive measures are urgently needed.8,11 The adequacy of DM-related knowledge among patients affects disease detection and control.12 The relationship that exists among knowledge, attitude and practice(KAP) factors is vital for researchers. Increases in one KAP variable will directly increase the other two factors.13,14
However, socio-demographic characteristics of the patients may also affect KAP variables.15,16 KAP literature focuses on the importance of increasing disease knowledge and awareness that relates to prevention, risk factor control, and disease management. Hence, there is a need for KAP studies in developing countries because of the rising incidence of T2DM in these countries.15.17 Although KAP studies have been conducted with patients living in Karachi,17,18 there is limited research data available for the northern regions. Therefore, the current study was planned to measure KAP factors in T2DM patients with complications residing in a mountainous area.
Subjects and Methods
The cross-sectional study was conducted at Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Hospital, Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, from March 26 to September 25, 2017, and comprised outpatients with T2DM and complications who were enrolled using convenience sampling. Patients were approached with the study questionnaire and those who furnished informed consent were included. Patients with type 1 DM and type 2DM without any known complication were excluded.
Age: ___________ Gender: ___________ Occupation:___________
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K1) Have you ever heard of diabetes?
K2) What actions can you take to make sure that you...