To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X10008408 Byline: Takuhiro Uto, Natnaprach Suangkaew, Osamu Morinaga, Hiroko Kariyazono, Shigeru Oiso, Yukihiro Shoyama Eriobotryae folium (EF), the dried leaves of Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. has been traditionally used to treat various diseases such as chronic bronchitis, cough, inflammation, skin diseases, and diabetes. In this study, we examined the effects of Eriobotryae folium extract (EFE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E.sub.2(PGE.sub.2) in RAW264 murine macrophage cells. EFE suppressed LPS-induced NO and PGE.sub.2 production in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with these observations, EFE reduced the LPS-induced expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at both protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, EFE significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-[kappa]B binding activity, which was associated with the inhibition of I[kappa]B-[alpha] degradation. EFE also attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of EF might result from inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression through the downregulation of NF-[kappa]B activation and MAPK phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW264 cells.