Byline: Arslaan Javaeed, Maria Naseer Malik, Maira Yaseen and Sanniya Khan Ghauri
Keywords: Learning style, VARK, Medical students, Pakistan, Azad Kashmir.
Learning results in attainment of knowledge, skills, and attitude.1 Learning style has been defined as the characteristic cognitive, affective, social and physiological behaviours that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment.2 Different people prefer different styles of learning depending on their cognitive processing.3 It has been known that if the method of information delivery to the learners matches their preferred learning style, they learn better.4 Grossly mismatched teaching and learning styles can make the students inattentive. In extreme situations, change of course and school dropouts have also been reported. 5, 6
Being adults, it is expected from medical students that they have already developed a preferred learning style. This means educators need to assess the students' preferred learning styles and modify the course material accordingly.7 Various methods have been developed to measure learning styles, including the validated Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire.8 Visual (V) l ear ner s prefer usi ng images, pic tures, illustrations, colours and maps to process information. Aural (A) learners depend on information that is heard or spoken as a way of learning. Thus, they like to listen to lectures, attend tutorials, get involved in discussions and use tape-recorders. Read/Write (R) learners prefer the use of the printed word to convey and receive information. They like to read tex tbooks, handouts and notes. Kinaesthetic (K) learners prefer getting information through experiences and convention.9
A large proportion of medical students prefer multimodal learning style, but in most medical colleges, unimodal teaching style by delivering lectures is still the predominant mode.10 The educators need to know the learning styles of medical students for effective planning and delivery of teaching-learning activity.11 The current study was planned to investigate the relationship between exam outcomes and the learning style preferences of medical students.
Subjects and Methods
The cross-sectional study was conducted from April to September 2018, at Poonch Medical College, Rawlakot, and Azad Jammu and Kashmir Medical College, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan. The sample size was calculated using the formula n = z2 p(1-p)/d2 while assuming a prevalence rate of 50%, and z value...