Alternative polyadenylation: methods, mechanism, function, and role in cancer.

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Date: Feb. 1, 2021
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 12,426 words
Lexile Measure: 1390L

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Abstract :

Occurring in over 60% of human genes, alternative polyadenylation (APA) results in numerous transcripts with differing 3'ends, thus greatly expanding the diversity of mRNAs and of proteins derived from a single gene. As a key molecular mechanism, APA is involved in various gene regulation steps including mRNA maturation, mRNA stability, cellular RNA decay, and protein diversification. APA is frequently dysregulated in cancers leading to changes in oncogenes and tumor suppressor gene expressions. Recent studies have revealed various APA regulatory mechanisms that promote the development and progression of a number of human diseases, including cancer. Here, we provide an overview of four types of APA and their impacts on gene regulation. We focus particularly on the interaction of APA with microRNAs, RNA binding proteins and other related factors, the core pre-mRNA 3'end processing complex, and 3'UTR length change. We also describe next-generation sequencing methods and computational tools for use in poly(A) signal detection and APA repositories and databases. Finally, we summarize the current understanding of APA in cancer and provide our vision for future APA related research. Keywords: Alternative polyadenylation (APA), 3'UTR, Poly(A) sites usage, Cancer

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A650466878