AKT signaling is associated with epigenetic reprogramming via the upregulation of TET and its cofactor, alpha-ketoglutarate during iPSC generation.

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From: Stem Cell Research & Therapy(Vol. 12, Issue 1)
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 7,416 words
Lexile Measure: 1520L

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Abstract :

Background Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling participates in cellular proliferation, survival and tumorigenesis. The activation of AKT signaling promotes the cellular reprogramming including generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and dedifferentiation of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Previous studies suggested that AKT promotes reprogramming by activating proliferation and glycolysis. Here we report a line of evidence that supports the notion that AKT signaling is involved in TET-mediated DNA demethylation during iPSC induction. Methods AKT signaling was activated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that were transduced with OCT4, SOX2 and KLF4. Multiomics analyses were conducted in this system to examine the effects of AKT activation on cells undergoing reprogramming. Results We revealed that cells undergoing reprogramming with artificially activated AKT exhibit enhanced anabolic glucose metabolism and accordingly increased level of cytosolic [alpha]-ketoglutarate ([alpha]KG), which is an essential cofactor for the enzymatic activity of the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) dioxygenase TET. Additionally, the level of TET is upregulated. Consistent with the upregulation of [alpha]KG production and TET, we observed a genome-wide increase in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which is an intermediate in DNA demethylation. Moreover, the DNA methylation level of ES-cell super-enhancers of pluripotency-related genes is significantly decreased, leading to the upregulation of associated genes. Finally, the transduction of TET and the administration of cell-permeable [alpha]KG to somatic cells synergistically enhance cell reprogramming by Yamanaka factors. Conclusion These results suggest the possibility that the activation of AKT during somatic cell reprogramming promotes epigenetic reprogramming through the hyperactivation of TET at the transcriptional and catalytic levels. Keywords: AKT signal, TET, [alpha]KG, DNA demethylation, Reprogramming, iPS cells

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A678037932