Evolution of andrenine bees reveals a long and complex history of faunal interchanges through the Americas during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic.

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Date: July 2022
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Document Type: Report; Brief article
Length: 346 words

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Abstract :

Keywords Amphitropical distribution; Andrenidae; Diversity; Biogeography; Macroevolution; Phylogeny Highlights * Andreninae bees arose in South America during the Late Cretaceous. * Northward dispersal events through the Americas have occurred at least in three periods, prior to the Panama Isthmus closure. * Palearctic diversity results from historical exchanges with North America during the Eocene and Oligocene-Miocene periods. * Afrotropical lineages likely originated from Palearctic ancestral groups as deriving from two distinct events. Abstract Bees are presumed to have arisen in the early to mid-Cretaceous coincident with the fragmentation of the southern continents and concurrently with the early diversification of the flowering plants. Here, we apply DNA sequences from multiple genes to recover a dated phylogeny and historical biogeographic of andrenine bees, a large group of 3000 species mainly distributed in arid areas of North America, South America, and the Palearctic region. Our results corroborate the monophyly of Andreninae and points toward a South America origin for the group during the Late Cretaceous. Overall, we provide strong evidence of amphitropical distributional pattern currently observed in the American continent as result of faunal interchange in at least three historical periods, much prior to the Panama Isthmus closure. The Palearctic diversity is shown to have arisen from North America during the Eocene and Miocene, and the Afrotropical lineages likely originated from the Palearctic region in the Miocene when the Sahara Desert was mostly vegetated. The incursions from South to North America and then onto the Old World are chronological congruent with periods when open-vegetation habitats were available for trans-continental dispersal and at the times when aridification and temperature decline offered favorable circumstances for bee diversification. Author Affiliation: (a) Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Nazaré 481, CEP 04263-000 São Paulo, Brazil (b) Department of Zoology, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, Distrito Federal, Brazil (c) Department of Zoology, Federal University of Paraná, PB 19020, 81531-980 Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil * Corresponding author. Article History: Received 22 July 2021; Revised 8 April 2022; Accepted 11 April 2022 Byline: Kelli S. Ramos [kellisramos@gmail.com] (a,*), Aline C. Martins (b), Gabriel A.R. Melo (c)

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A703692408