Purpose To assess the efficacy of vitrectomy in degenerative and tractional lamellar macular holes (LMHs) by meta-analysis of published studies. Methods PubMed, Medline and Embase databases were searched up to May 2020. Included cohorts were divided into three groups: degenerative LMH group, lamellar hole associated epiretinal proliferation (LHEP) group and tractional LMH group. LHEP is likely to be associated with degenerative LMHs, but less commonly could be associated with mixed LMHs. To reduce risk of possible misclassification bias, eyes with LHEP which could not have been precisely classified by the authors, were included into the LHEP group. The primary outcome was to investigate the visual change following primary vitrectomy in the degenerative LMH and LHEP group versus the tractional LMH group. A sensitivity analysis excluding the LHEP group was also performed on the primary outcome. Mean difference (MD) in best corrected visual acuity between baseline and post-treatment was calculated, along with 95% confidence interval (CI). Rate of incidence of post-operative full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) was assessed as secondary outcome. Results Thirteen studies were included. Pooled analyses including all groups showed a significant visual improvement following vitrectomy (pre-post MD = -0.17;95%CI = -0.22,-0.12;p Conclusion Primary vitrectomy for LMH ensured a favorable visual outcome, with no difference in visual gain between degenerative and tractional LMHs. However, a higher incidence of post-operative FTMHs was found in eyes with the degenerative LMH subtype.