Prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension in Ghana: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Date: Mar. 5, 2021
From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 16, Issue 3)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 14,206 words
Lexile Measure: 1450L

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Abstract :

Background Hypertension is a major health problem in Ghana, being a leading cause of admissions and deaths in the country. In the context of a changing food and health policy environment, we undertook a systematic review (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020177174) and a meta-analysis of the prevalence of adult hypertension, and its awareness and control in Ghana. Methods We searched major databases including PubMed, Embase as well as Google Scholar and online digital collections of public universities of Ghana to locate relevant published and unpublished community-based articles up till April 2020. Findings Eighty-five articles involving 82,045 apparently-healthy subjects aged 15-100 years were analyzed. In individual studies, the prevalence of hypertension, defined in most cases as blood pressure [greater than or equal to] 140/90 mmHg, ranged from 2.8% to 67.5%. The pooled prevalence from the meta-analysis was 27.0% (95% CI 24.0%-30.0%), being twice as high in the coastal (28%, 95% CI: 24.0%-31.0%) and middle geo-ecological belts (29%, 95% CI: 25.0%-33.0%) as in the northern belt (13%, 95% CI: 7.0%-21.0%). The prevalence was similar by sex, urban-rural residence or peer-review status of the included studies. It did not appear to vary over the study year period 1976-2019. Of the subjects with hypertension, only 35% (95% CI: 29.0%-41.0%) were aware of it, 22% (95% CI: 16.0%-29.0%) were on treatment and 6.0% (95% CI: 3.0%-10.0%) had their blood pressure controlled. Sensitivity analyses corroborated the robust estimates. There was, however, high heterogeneity (I.sup.2 = 98.7%) across the studies which was partly explained by prevalent obesity in the subjects. Conclusion More than one in four adults in Ghana have hypertension. This high prevalence has persisted for decades and is similar in rural and urban populations. With the low awareness and poor control of hypertension, greater investments in cardiovascular health are required if Ghana is to meet the global target for hypertension.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A653977492