Because of the constantly growing numbers of COVID-19 infections and deaths, attempts were undertaken to find drugs with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity among ones already approved for other pathologies. In the framework of such attempts, in a number of in vitro, as well as in vivo, models it was shown that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has an effect against SARS-CoV-2. While there were not enough clinical data to support the use of HCQ, several countries including Russia have included HCQ in treatment protocols for infected patients and for prophylaxis. In the current non-randomized, observational study we evaluated the SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharynx swabs from infected patients 7-10 days post symptoms with clinically mild disease and compared the viral RNA load dynamics between patients receiving HCQ (200 mg twice per day according to the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation treatment instructions, n = 33) and a control group without antiviral pharmacological therapy (n = 12). We found a statistically significant relationship between maximal RNA quantity and deterioration of patients' medical conditions, and as well we confirmed arterial hypertension to be a risk factor for people with COVID-19. However, we showed that at the dose used in the study HCQ therapy neither shortened the viral shedding period nor reduced the virus RNA load.