Causal relationship between the timing of menarche and young adult body mass index with consideration to a trend of consistently decreasing age at menarche.

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Date: Feb. 26, 2021
From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 16, Issue 2)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 6,763 words
Lexile Measure: 1400L

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Abstract :

Younger age at menarche (AAM) is associated with higher body mass index (BMI) for young women. Considering that continuous trends in decreasing AAM and increasing BMI are found in many countries, we attempted to assess whether the observed negative association between AAM and young adult BMI is causal. We included 4,093 women from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and Healthy twin Study (HTS) with relevant epidemiologic data and genome-wide marker information. To mitigate the remarkable differences in AAM across generations, we converted the AAM to a generation-standardized AAM (gsAAM). To test causality, we applied the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, using a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 14 AAM-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We constructed MR models adjusting for education level and validated the results using the inverse-variance weighted (IVW), weighted median (WM), MR-pleiotropy residual sum and outliers test (MR-PRESSO), and MR-Egger regression methods. We found a null association using observed AAM and BMI level (conventional regression; -0.05 [95% CIs -0.10-0.00] per 1-year higher AAM). This null association was replicated when gsAAM was applied instead of AAM. Using the two-stage least squares (2SLS) approach employing a univariate GRS, the association was also negated for both AAM and gsAAM, regardless of model specifications. All the MR diagnostics suggested statistically insignificant associations, but weakly negative trends, without evidence of confounding from pleiotropy. We did not observe a causal association between AAM and young adult BMI whether we considered the birth cohort effect or not. Our study alone does not exclude the possibility of existing a weak negative association, considering the modest power of our study design.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A653157190